Epalloy™ 9000 vs. Competitive Multifunctional Resins for Increased Tg 5-25-11
Epalloy 9000 (Tris-Hydroxy Phenyl Ethane Triglycidyl Ether or THPE-TGE for short) is a high aromatic containing trifunctional glycidyl ether. Although known for generating cured compositions with very high Tg’s, it can also be used as a modifier for standard LER to increase Tg like competitive products in this category such as Epon SU8 and Tactix 742.
TSR052511-CZ compares the relative performance of these three modifiers, showing clearly the superior performance of Epalloy 9000 over the competitive products. Click to view PDF.
Hypro™ 1300X16 ATBN in Elastomeric Epoxies
Hypro reactive liquid polymers are recognized as tougheners in the epoxy technology. The ATBN (amine terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile) liquid polymers are no exception and are often part of the amine package of a 2-part amine cured epoxy formulation. This study was aimed at examining ATBN differently in terms of its use level. Thus ATBN was used at a level of 100 phr resulting in low modulus-high elongation compositions.
Targeted applications for these ‘epoxy elastomers’ are moisture resistant membranes, crack bridging coatings, chemical resistant secondary containment coatings, etc. Hypro 1300X16 ATBN was superior chemical resistance-wise to Desmocap 12A and has a better balance of mechanical properties in terms of tensile strength and tensile elongation.
Finally there are some adhesives data reported as well in which 1300X16 ATBN was evaluated at a rubber level more typical for a structural adhesive. Again it was compared to the nonyl phenol blocked aromatic urethane polymer with greater peel strength achieved with 1300X16 ATBN. Click to view PDF.
Hypro™ RLP and HyPox™ CTBN Modified Epoxies in 1- and 2- Part Adhesives 6-21-10
Hypro 1300X16 ATBN and HyPox RA840 and RA1340 were examined as elastomeric modifiers in one and two component epoxy adhesives. Lap shear and T-Peel strength data based on bonding cold rolled and electro galvanized steel are provided. For a 2-part epoxy adhesive two formulating options exist: 1) ATBN addition to the hardener and 2) HyPox addition to the resin. In select systems as those based on an aliphatic amine curing agent both RA840 and RA1340 were found to be superior tougheners to 1300X16 ATBN. For a 1-part epoxy adhesive of the substituted urea accelerated dicyandiamide cured variety, HyPox CTBN modified epoxies gave excellent peel strength on oily contaminated hot dipped galvanized steel. RLP0901102 Click to view PDF.
ERISYSTM GA-240 as Cross Linker for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives 3-10-10
Water based pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA’s) are used for a variety of products which include tapes, labels and protective films. The functionalized acrylic resins in many of these adhesives require use of cross linkers in order to control tack and adhesion. While Polyfunctional Aziridine’s (PFAZ) are more common, epoxies can also be utilized to cross link resins containing pendant acid functionality. In particular, Erisys GA240 (Tetra-glycidyl m-Xylene Diamine) has been shown to be an effective alternative to polyfunctional aziridines for these applications. Click to view PDF.
Improved Low Temperature Performance of Epoxy Adhesives 9-14-09
Epoxy adhesives are extremely brittle, and require a method of toughening for use in structural adhesives. Traditional methods for toughening epoxy resins, such as the incorporation of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) copolymers, give good room and elevated temperature toughening, but does not improve low temperature performance, while the incorporation of carboxyl terminated butadiene (CTB) homopolymer will give improved low temperature properties but will phase separate from the pre-cured epoxy resin. A novel method for combining both CTB and CTBN in the synthesis of an epoxy terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (ETBN) copolymer thus providing both solubility in the initial pre-cured epoxy resin as well as excellent low temperature performance in the cured adhesive is presented. Click to view PDF.
Hypro™ Reactive Liquid Polymer Toughened Vinyl Ester Composites 07-13-09
Elastomer modified vinyl ester resins have been available for sometime. Such resins as Derakane 8084 were initially developed for applications requiring specific properties provided by an elastomer. For instance, the nitrile rubber (CTBN) in Derakane 8084 enhances adhesion to metal making it useful as a primer for re-storing corroded steel tanks. The composites industry is now recognizing the need for tougher matrices. This study characterized the toughness of Derakane 8084 as well as a further toughened version of 8084 which contained Hypro ETBN 130X40 as an additive. Fatigue resistance of composites designed for wind turbine blades is described with Derakane 8084 outperforming an unmodified vinyl ester and an orthophthalic unsaturated polyester. RLP090713 Click to view PDF.
New CTBN/Epoxy Adduct Technology 7-10-09
Hypro™ reactive liquid polymers of the CTBN (carboxyl terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile) variety excel as tougheners for thermoset resins specifically epoxies. Epoxy/CTBN adducts as Hypox’s RA840 and RA1340 are a convenient approach to incorporating rubber (CTBN) into formulated epoxy resins. While room and low temperature toughness may be achieved with these adducts based on butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers it is recognized that in some instances enhanced toughness is necessary beyond the capability of a nitrile rubber. This study pertained to the lowest Tg (glass transition temperature) polymer in the Hypro product line or carboxyl terminated butadiene (CTB). The unique CTB containing epoxy adduct provided greater -40˚C peel strength in a dicyandiamide cured liquid epoxy paste adhesive than a CTBN containing epoxy adduct. RLP090710 Click to view PDF.
Hypro™ ATBN/Amine Compatibility Study 7-7-09
Hypro ATBN liquid polymers are often used as the elastomeric portion of two-component epoxy resins. Due to its high amine equivalent weight, ATBN is not used as the major component of the amine hardener package but typically at a concentration of less than 30 phr (parts per hundred resin). Therefore ATBN liquid polymers are blended with conventional epoxy curing agents of the amine variety. This study was aimed at determining the compatibility of several grades of ATBN with numerous generic amines of the polyamide, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic varieties. RLP090707 Click to view PDF.
The Search for Improved Alternatives in Epoxy Toughening 6-09
Based on the paper written by William Starner, Ph.D., Technical Director for CVC Thermoset Specialites presented on September 16th, 2008 at the Thermoset Resin Formulators Association Annual Meeting. This article, published in 2009 by Adhesives and Sealants Industry, pp 19-23, www.adhesivesmag.com, highlights research showing the performance benefits of glycidyl esters. Click to view PDF.
HyPox™ RA840 Modified Anhydride Cured Epoxy Resins 6-12-09
Hypro CTBN reactive liquid polymers are used in the form of epoxy adducts serving as modifiers for epoxy resins. Thus the carboxyl functionality is converted into an epoxy functionality. Two CTBN/epoxy adducts are HyPox RA840 and HyPox RA1340 that differ in type of CTBN. These adducts were evaluated as tougheners in a tertiary amine catalyzed methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride cured epoxy resin. Mechanical properties as well as fracture toughness determined by GIc criterion were determined for the elastomer modified systems noting that a flexible anhydride was included in several of the compositions. RLP090612 Click to view PDF.
Amine Terminated Polypropylene Glycol Compared to Hypro™ Reactive Liquid Polymers (RLP) in Epoxy Adhesives 6-22-09
Hypro reactive liquid polymers of either the carboxyl terminated (CTBN) or amine terminated (ATBN) variety are well known tougheners for epoxy resins. As such, typical rubber concentrations of 5-15 phr (parts per hundred resin) are used in structural applications as adhesives and composites. These same liquid polymers may be used at greater levels behaving as flexibilizers. In that capacity HyPox RA840, HyPox RA1340 and Hypro 1300X16 ATBN were investigated at a 25 phr level and compared to the polyoxypropylene diamine, Jeffamine D-2000 in an amine cured epoxy adhesive.
All three reactive liquid polymers provided greater peel strength than D-2000 on cold rolled steel and electro galvanized steel substrates. RLP090622 Click to view PDF.
CTBN Modified Epoxy Adhesives for High Peel Strength 6-10-09
Crash resistant structural epoxy adhesives are being designed for the automotive industry to meet the demand for a bonding technique to reduce/eliminate the number of welds. Impact resistance is required at temperatures as low as -40˚C with a standard adopted for impact wedge peel testing. Commercially available epoxy adhesives used for structural bonding in the automotive market use co-tougheners. This TSR identifies a combination of HyPox RA1340 and an amine terminated (polytetramethylene ether-polypropylene glycol) copolymer providing a significant degree of peel strength particularly at low temperatures. RLP090610 Click to view PDF.
Reactive Liquid Polymer Modified Epoxy Powder Coatings 2-16-09
Reactive liquid polymers commonly used in the thermoset resin industry are
carboxyl terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) copolymers. In a continuous epoxy matrix CTBN will form a discontinuous secondary phase resulting in an elastomer toughened thermoset epoxy.1,2 A considerable amount of research has taken place in academia and industry over the years in the area of elastomer toughened thermoset resins designed for structural applications. The use of CTBN’s in coatings applications has been studied to a lesser degree3-7; and in powder coatings, even less. The scope of this project was to examine different grades of CTBN in two model formulations representing epoxy powder coatings for high performance, functional applications. TSR #090122 Click to view PDF.
Fracture Toughness of Elastomer Modified, E-glass Reinforced Vinyl Ester Composites 2-1-2009
Elastomer toughened epoxy resins with Hypro CTBN (and ATBN) reactive liquid polymers are a well known technology to formulators of structural adhesives and matrix resins for composites. The phase separated rubber toughening technology associated with elastomer modification of epoxy resins is less familiar to those using vinyl ester resins. This study was designed to examine elastomer modified vinyl ester resins in glass reinforced composites. Interlaminar fracture toughness (GIc) data are featured suggesting that Hypro reactive liquid polymers as ETBN 1300X40 and VTBNX 1300X33 may be added to vinyl esters to substantially increase the delamination resistance of a composite. Existing elastomer modified resins such as Derakane 8084 are particularly useful in maximizing toughness of a vinyl ester resin and/or composite. Click to view PDF.
Reactive Liquid Polymer Modified Epoxy Powder Coatings 1-22-09
Hypro™ reactive liquid polymers are more familiar to epoxy technologists formulating structural adhesives and composites than those associated with coatings. High viscosity of CTBN (carboxyl terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile), for instance can be problematic in liquid coatings. The powder coatings technology seldom uses liquid ingredients in a powder coating formulation. This report describes work done in synthesizing higher molecular weight epoxy resins with various CTBN liquid polymers to achieve solid epoxies useful for powder coatings. As expected inclusion of CTBN enhanced the conical mandrel bend flexibility and impact resistance over unmodified epoxy powder coatings based on Epon’s 2004 and 2014. RLP090122 Click to view PDF.
Flexibilizing Modifiers - 10/29/2008
The primary objective of this report is to discuss the various types of Flexibilizing Modifiers available from CVC. Topics discussed include curing agent selection, the difference between flexibilization and toughening, and data trends one can expect to see with our various Flexibilizing Modifiers. TSR #081029-CZ Click to view PDF.
Alternatives In Toughening- 9/15/2008: Presented at a meeting of the Thermoset Resin Formulators Association in Chicago, IL on Tuesday, September 16th, 2008.
The impact of terminal and polymer backbone functionality on toughener effectiveness from the standpoint of glass transition temperature, and adhesive and structural properties were examined. Internal functionality included polybutadiene, polybutadiene/acrylonitrile, polyether, polyester and polyacrylate. Terminal functionality included Bis A epoxy adducts, glycidyl esters and ethers, carboxylates and alcohols. Data shows that both internal and terminal functionalities have a dramatic affect on all properties tested. Glycidated materials gave the better overall performance. Click to view PDF.
EPALLOYTM 7200X90 for Low VOC, Fast Cure Primer Application - 5/24/2007
EPALLOY 7200X90, a high solids solvent-diluted resin with fast cure properties, is ideally suited for evaluation as an additive to solid Bisphenol A resin compositions to provide high solids, VOC compliant, formuations for primer applications. The fast cure and low viscosity of this product will help to overcome limitations encountered with use of standard LER commonly used as a modifier for these formulations. This article provides data that shows 7200X90 will provide low VOC, improved dry time, better chemical resistance, and elimination of induction times as compared to LER formulations. Click to view PDF.
Comparison of BCL3 v. BF3 Amine Complexes - 3/7/2006
Latent curing agents based on the amine complexes of Boron Trifluoride (BF3)and Boron Trichloride (BCL3) are commonly used to catalyze epoxy resin formulations. Boron Trifluoride (BF3) complexes were developed in the 1950's. Boron Trichloride complexes came later and although they were perfected by the 1970's, still remain lesser known than their BF3 counterparts, despite many advantages in performance. The purpose of this artice is to review the performance properties and advantages of Omicure BC-120 (Boron Trichloride amine complex offered by CVC Specialty Chemicals, Inc.) as compared to several commercially available grades of BF3 complexes for latency, stability and reactivity. TSR #031030 Click to view PDF.
This study is presented by Charles Zarnitz, Technical Service Manager for CVC Thermoset Specialties.
Characteristics of Bis F and Phenol Novolac Resins - 3/7/2006
Compositional Differences and their Effect on Performance
Use of epoxy phenol novolacs including Bis F can greatly enhance the performance of corrosion resistant coatings and high temperature composites. In selecting resins for these applications, it is important to understand the influence of functionality, advancement and their relationship on viscosity and EEW in formulating systems. Failure to do so can result in selecting a resin that will fail because it is inadequately cured or exhibits a viscosity that is too high. Proper selection of the resin and matching the correct curing agent stoichiometry will guarantee optimal performance. Click to view PDF.
Toughening of Multifunctional Epoxy Systems - 3/3/2006
Multifunctional Epoxy Resins have long been used where higher temperature performance and/or high modulus is required. These systems however are limited in their use because of their inherent brittleness. Improvement in toughness can be accomplished through a number of techniques, which are effective in difunctional and more linear systems such as those based on Bisphenol A. However some of these approaches are less effective with multifunctional epoxy resins because they reduce the cross-link density for these resins and correspondingly high temperature performance. In this study we examined different approaches to toughening and measured their effectiveness in improving fracture toughness and evaluated their impact on thermal and mechanical properties. Click to view PDF.
Substituted Urea Evaluations - 11/1/2005
This study deals with the evaluation of some common substituted ureas as DGEBA/dicy accelerators. United States patents covering the use of substituted ureas as accelerators began to appear in the late 60’s. This work will help the epoxy formulator to decide which substituted urea, and what concentration amount will work best to meet particular application needs. In this study we have identified the effect of each substituted urea on: 1. Degree of acceleration 2. Room temperature shelf life 3. Tg Click to view PDF.
Water Soluble Epoxy Resins & Coating Formulations - 5/9/2005
A high gloss, exudate free, rapid dry, completely water soluble epoxy formulation based on the carboxylic acid salt of tetraglycidyl –meta-xylylenediamine and a variety of water based amine curatives is presented. Proposed water soluble formulation is similar in application and performance properties to that observed in solvent based systems. No coalescence or induction period is required as is necessary with conventional water-borne epoxies. TSR #070215-CZ Click to view PDF.
EPALLOYTM 7200 Alternate Acrylate Modified Epoxy - 5/5/2005
Epalloy 7200 is a Chemically Modified Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin designed for fast cure applications. This article shows benefits derived with the use of an Epalloy 7200 formula vs. a fast cure acrylate modified epoxy formulation. TSR#051005. Click to view PDF.
EPALLOY 7200 Compared to Mercaptan Cure Epoxy - 4/1/2005
Epalloy 7200 is a Chemically Modified Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin designed for fast cure applications. This article shows benefits derived with the use of an Epalloy 7200 formula vs. a typical five-minute cure mercaptan formulation. TSR #050703 Click to view PDF.
Advantages of Omicure U-52 and Omicure U-52M - 12/9/2004
Omicure U-52 is an aromatic substituted urea used as a latent accelerator in one part, dicy cured epoxy formulations. The attached Technical Service Report analyzes Omicure U-52 for acceleration, cure-time when compared to other common substituted ureas. TSR#020909 Click to view PDF.
Chemical Resistance of Epoxy Novolac Resins - 4/27/2004
Chemical Resistance of Epoxy Novolac Resins with Cycloaliphatic Curing Agents
Comparison of Weight Loss and Surface Integrity in Heat Cured Systems TSR #001207
Click to view PDF.
Chemical Resistance Study - 4/22/2004
7 Day 25 degree C Cure 28 Day Room Temperature Immersion TSR #940504 Click to view PDF.
Tg of Low Viscosity Novolacs - 9/11/2003
Tg of Low Viscosity Novolacs - EPALLOY 8330/ERISYS GE-30
Technical Service Report #TSR030804
Click to view PDF.
Mechanical Properties of Epoxidized Novolac Resins - 2/27/2003
This data shows the effect of CTBN modification in Phenol Novolac resins. A key result is the large gain in Fracture Toughness with minimal sacrifice in Tg. Technical Service Report #980312. Click to view PDF.
Hardness Dev. of Epoxidized Bis F, 95A and F/A - 12/4/2002
Comparison of the reaction rate of DER-331, 8230, 9237-70, 7170, 7138 and DER-331/8230 (78/22pbw) cured with ancamine 1693. Technical Service Report #TS940420
Click to view PDF.
ERISYS GE-60 Screened as Crosslinking Agent - 11/21/2002
ERISYS GE-60 as a crosslinker with Rohm & Haas PARALOID AE 1285 for High Performance Maintenance Coatings Technical Service Report #TS020612 Click to view PDF.
ERISYS GE-60 Studied as a Cross Linker - 12/14/2000
ERISYS GE-60 as a Cross Linker for Acid Functional Acrylic Solution Resin
Technical Service Report TSR#000920 Click to view PDF.
Evaluate Omicure U-24 as a Dicy Accelerator for Powder Coatings - 6/1/2001
Evaluate OMICURE U-24 as a Dicyandiamide Accelerator in Typical Powder Coating Formulations Technical Service Report #TS001204 Click to view PDF.
ERISYS GA-240 Study - 3/21/2001
Evaluation of ERISYS GA-240 as a Replacement for Polyfunctional Aziridine Crosslinker for Polyurethane Dispersions Technical Service Report #TS010321
Click to view PDF.
High Tg Epoxy Formulations Study - 10/25/2000
High Tg Epoxy Formulations based on Modified and Unmodified EPALLOY Epoxy Novolac Technical Service Report TSR#001502S. Click to view PDF.
EPALLOY 7200 Used in ElevTemp Cure Epoxy Systems - 9/1/2005
Epalloy 7200 is a Chemically Modified Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin to provide faster cure speeds at low, ambient and elevated temperatures. This article looks specifically at elevated temperature applications and indicates the benefits to its use with aromatic and cycloaliphatic amines designed for force cure applications.
Click to view PDF.
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